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| Last Updated:: 15/02/2022

List of wetlands identified under national wetland conservation programme


Sl No

Name of Wetland










Vembanad - Kol


Ashtamudi Wetland


Latitude: 80 53’ 14” N to 90 0’ 57” N

Longitude: 760 31’ 54” E to 760 40’ 2” E

1 Km North of Kollam Town

Area: 5598ha

Wetland type: Lagoon

Average Annual Rainfall: 2400mm, mostly occurring during June to September


Description: Declared as Ramsar site on 19/08/02. An extensive estuarine system, the second largest in Kerala state, which is of extraordinary importance for its hydrological functions, its biodiversity and it’s supported for fish. The site supports a number of mangroves species as well as over 40 associated plant species, and 57 species of birds have been observed, including six that are migratory. Nearly 100 species of fish sustain a lively fishing industry, with thousands of fishermen depending directly upon the estuary for their livelihood population density and urban pressures pose threats to the site, including pollution from oil spills from thousands of fishing boats and from industries in the surrounding area and conservation of natural habitat for development purposes


Principal vegetation:

Ashtamudi Estury has mangroves Avicennia officinalis, Brugiera gymnorrhize and sonneralia caseolarisbas also 43 species of marshy and mangrove associated including two endangered species Syzygium trevancoricum(endangered species according to the Red Data Book of Indian Plants)and Calamus rotang in the Terrestrial system. These species offer excellent scope for development of marine bioreserve to promote ecotourism in the estuarine of the lake.



The lake supports 57 species of avifauna, of which 6 are migratory and 51 resident species. Terns, plovers, cormorants, and herons are most abundant birds in the lake.



Sasthamkotta lake


Latitude: 90 1’ 35” N to 90 3’ 17” N

Longitude: 760 36’ 42” E to 760 38’ 41” E

Located in Kollam district and 30 km away from the Kollam town

Area: 354 ha

Wetland type: Lake

Average Annual Rainfall: 2540mm, mostly occurring during June to September


Description: Declared as Ramsar site on 19/08/02. The water contains no common salts or other minerals and supports no water plants; a larva called “cavaborus” abounds and eliminates bacteria in the water, thus contributing to its exceptional purity. Overall turbidity is low.

Largest rain-fed freshwater lake in Kerala. The lake is surrounded by hills on all sides, except the south where a bund has been constructed. The average depth is 6.8m and maximum depth is 15.2 m. The lake provides drinking water to the people in its environs.  


Principal vegetation: vegetation is very scant, floating and rooted plants are negligible.


Fauna and Flora: 27 species of fresh water fishes include pearl sport (Etroplus suratensis) and catfish, two genera of prawns, 21 species of herrings and sardines of the family Clupeidae. The common teal or dabbling duck is the smallest migratory bird found in the lake. The insectivorous plant, Drosera found on the eastern shore of the lake.




Vembanad Wetland


Latitude: 90 30’ 40” N to 90 50’ 27” N

Longitude: 760 21’ 4” E to 760 25’ 55” E

Located at the border of Alappuzha, Eranakulam and Kottayam districts

Area: 23540 ha

Wetland type: Lagoon

Average Annual Rainfall: 2400mm, mostly occurring during June to September


Description: Declared as Ramsar site on 19/08/02. The largest brackish, humid tropical wetland ecosystem on the south west coast of India, fed by 10 rivers and typical of large estuarine systems on the western coast, renowned for its clams and supporting the third largest waterfowl population in India during the winter months. Over 90 species of resident birds and 50 species of migratory birds are found in the Kol area. Flood protection for thickly populated coastal areas of three districts of Kerala is considered a major benefit.

Kumarakam Bird Sanctuary is located around Vembanad Lake. Thaneermukkom salt barrier divides the lake in to two parts one with brackish water perennially and other with fresh water from rivers draining in to the lake. The wetland support diverse fauna, including a large variety of fish, prawns ana clams,reptilesand birds and provides ahabitate for both an adromous and catadromous fish species.


Principal vegetation: The major aquatic plants of the are: Eichhornia crassipes, Salvania molests, Nymphaea stellata, N. Nouchali, Hydrillaverticellata, Najas minor,Limnophila heterophyll.


Fauna: More than 20,000 waterfowl’s found and ideal habitat for shrimps

Tributary of the lake water is low aquatic vegetation is present in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon season.


Source: National Wetland Atlas- Kerala