Latitude: 90 30’ 40” N to 90 50’ 27” N
Longitude: 760 21’ 4” E to 760 25’ 55” E
Located at the border of Alappuzha, Eranakulam and Kottayam districts
Area: 23540 ha
Wetland type: Lagoon
Average Annual Rainfall: 2400mm, mostly occurring during June to September
Description: Declared as Ramsar site on 19/08/02. The largest brackish, humid tropical wetland ecosystem on the south west coast of India, fed by 10 rivers and typical of large estuarine systems on the western coast, renowned for its clams and supporting the third largest waterfowl population in India during the winter months. Over 90 species of resident birds and 50 species of migratory birds are found in the Kol area. Flood protection for thickly populated coastal areas of three districts of Kerala is considered a major benefit.
Kumarakam Bird Sanctuary is located around Vembanad Lake. Thaneermukkom salt barrier divides the lake in to two parts one with brackish water perennially and other with fresh water from rivers draining in to the lake. The wetland support diverse fauna, including a large variety of fish, prawns ana clams,reptilesand birds and provides ahabitate for both an adromous and catadromous fish species.
Principal vegetation: The major aquatic plants of the are: Eichhornia crassipes, Salvania molests, Nymphaea stellata, N. Nouchali, Hydrillaverticellata, Najas minor,Limnophila heterophyll.
Fauna: More than 20,000 waterfowl’s found and ideal habitat for shrimps
Tributary of the lake water is low aquatic vegetation is present in post-monsoon and pre-monsoon season.
Source: National Wetland Atlas- Kerala