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| Last Updated:: 14/07/2017

Road Network in Kerala


Road Network in Kerala

          The roads in Kerala are maintained by National Highways / Public Works Department (R&B), Local Bodies, Department of Irrigation, KSEB, Department of Forests, Railways etc. Other agencies dealing with transport sector are National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NATPAC), Motor Vehicles Department, Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Kerala Transport Development Finance Corporation (KTDFC) and Roads & Bridges Development Corporation of Kerala (RBDCK).


a)    National Highways in Kerala

          The length of National Highways in Kerala (see Table below) increased from 1523.954 km in 2003-04 to 1525.570 KM during 2004-05. National Highways in Kerala is only 2.3% of the total National Highway length spread over 1525.570 KM in India. Improvement and strengthening of 320 km of National Highways was carried out by providing Bituminous Macadam and Asphalic concrete in the year 2004-05. 

                   Based on the data available in 2010, there are 9 National Highways passing through the State of Kerala with a total length of 1534.451 Km. Government of India Vide Notification No S.O 542(E) dated 5th March renamed all the National Highways .The revised numbers of National Highways are here.

 

               The National Highway Wing of State PWD is responsible for the upkeep and development of National Highways in the State mainly with the funds allocated by the Government of India. There are nine National Highways together constituting 1747.251 Km length in the State. The details are shown here. 

              The National Highway Wing of State PWD is responsible for the upkeep and development of National Highways in the State mainly with the funds allocated by the GoI. There are Nine National Highways together constituting 1781.57 km length in the State, of which 1,339 km (76.6 per cent) are under various development stages by the National Highways Authority of India (NHAI). Development of the remaining 408 km, which is under the control of the State PWD, is the responsibility of the State Government. The details are presented in the Table below. 

 

 

Sl. No

 

New No.

 

Existing No.

 

From

 

To

 

Length of New NH No. in Kerala Kms

1

66

NH 17

Thalappadi

Edappally

420.777

669.437

NH 47

Edappally

Kaliyikkavila

248.660

2

544

NH 47

Walayar

Edappally

168.14

3

85

NH 49

Bodimettu

Kundanoor

167.593

4

744

NH 208

Kollam

Kazhuthuruthy

81.280

5

766

NH 212

Kozhikode

Muthanga Kerala– Karnataka Border

117.600

6

966

NH 213

Kozhikode

Palakkad

125.304

7

183

NH 220

Kollam

Theni in Tamil Nadu Border

190.300

8

966 B

NH 47 A

Wellington Island

Kundanoor

5.920

9

966 A

NH 47 C

Vallarpadam

Kalamassery

17.200

10

183 A

-

 

Bharanikkavu

116.800

11

185

-

 

Adimaly

96.000

Total

1781.57

                                                                                                                                                          Source : PWD (NH) 

 

                  Among the 11 National Highways, the Vallarpadam – Kalamassery NH C (New NH 966 A) is being developed by the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI). Upkeep of the highways, except 176 km is being done by State PWD with fund allocated by Ministry of Road Transport and Highway (MoRTH). Central Road Fund allocation is used for the development of State Roads that is, State Highways and Major District Roads. 45 works are on-going and 26 new works have been arranged during the period.

 

b)State Road Network

 

          On the road front, traffic has been growing at a rate of 10 to 11 percent every year, resulting in excessive pressure on the roads in the State. Total road length in Kerala during 2004-05, increased to 154679 KM from 145704 kms in the previous year, registering an increase of 6 percent. Road density in the State is 398 km / 100 sq.km and it is far ahead of national average of 74.9 km/100 sq.km. The length of road per lakh population is 485.8 km and it is much higher than the national average of 259.2 km. The roads maintained by Panchayats has also increased by 5.34 percent in 2004-05. Category of road network in Kerala is shown here. 

          According to the reports on 2010, all major arterial roads which provide mobility are with the PWD (R&B) consisting 4341.651 Km State Highways and 18900.058 Km Major District Roads (MDR), where as the length of SH  during the previous year is 4460.29 Km and that of MDR is 17117.928 Km showing a increase in length in MDR. The Other District Roads under PWD converted as MDR during 2001-06 are now deleted and newly retained MDR and the length of MDR comes to 18900.058 Km showing an increase in length by 1782.13 Km. Roads maintained by PWD (R&B) and PWD (NH) are shown here:

               According to the reports 2011, the State of Kerala the Public Works Department have a total road length of 33106 Kms of State roads and 1542 Kms of National Highways. The State roads include 4342 Kms. of State Highways and 18900.058 Kms of Major District Roads (MDR).  Road improvements, repair and maintenance of existing roads, development and up gradation are the major activities taken up in the sector during the year . Budgetary support, private finance and institutional supports are used for the purpose. Roads maintained by PWD (R&B) and PWD (NH) are shown here

                       According to 2012 reports,  Kerala the Public Works Department has a total road length of 31811.6 Kms of State roads and 1542 Kms of National Highways. The State roads include 4341.65 Kms of State Highways and 27469.95 Kms of Major District Roads. Road improvements, repair and maintenance of existing roads, development and up gradation are the major activities taken up in the sector during the year. Budgetary support, private finance and institutional supports are used for the purpose. In the road infrastructure the share by different department of PWD are shown here:

                                        The outlay and expenditure in the Transport sector during 2011-12, 2012-13 and 2013-14 is given here

 

                      According to the reports published by the Economic Review 2013, total road length in Kerala during 2012-13 increased to 243373.398 Kms. Road density in the State is 390 Km/100 sq.km and it is ahead of the national average of 131 km/100 sq.km. The length of road per lakh population is 728 km. The roads maintained by different Panchayats have also increased by 72.92 percent in 2012-13. Roads maintained by different agencies are show in the table and the category of road network in Kerala is shown here.

 

                             According to the reports published by the Kerala State Planning Board Economic Review 2014, the total road length in Kerala during 2013-14 increased to 3,31,372 Kms. from 2,43,373 Kms in the previous year. Road density in the State is 852 Km/100 sq.km and it is ahead of the national average of 387 km/100 sq.km. The length of road per lakh population is 991 km. The roads maintained by different Panchayats has also increased by 49 percent in 2013-14. The outlay and Expenditure in Transport Sector during 2012-13 to 2014-15 is given here.

Roads maintained by different agencies are given in the table below  and category of road network in Kerala is shown in the figure here.

 The major development indicators of transport and communication sector in the State since 2008 are given here . On the road front, traffic has been growing at a rate of 10 to 11 percent every year, resulting in excessive pressure on the roads of the State.  

                        Out of the total road length of 265421 Km held by Panchayats, 48415 Km (18%) are black topped, 20060 Km (7.6%) are gravelled , 9481 Km (3.57%) are cement concrete and 172001 (65%) are in the other category. Out of the total roads maintained by PWD (31811.601) Km, Kottayam District has the major share with a length of 3449.301 Km (10.8%). Wayanad District has the lowest share 1029.305 Km (3%). Details of district wise length of roads maintained by PWD (R&B) as on 31.03.2014 is given here. As on 31.03.2014 there were 2253 bridges and 51400 culverts on the PWD roads. Of them 91 Nos of bridges need reconstruction/rennovation and 1265 culverts are not in good condition. More details are available in the here. 

                            Out of the total road length of 177466.257 Km held byPanchayats, 52636.277 Km (29.66%) are black topped and 77223 Km (43.5%) are gravelled. Out of the total roads maintained by PWD 31811.601 Km, Kottayam District has the major share with a length of 3449.301 Km (10.8%). Wayanad District has the lowest share 1029.305 Km (3%). Details of district wise length of roads maintained by PWD (R&B) as on 31.03.2013 is given in Appendix 5.2a

                       As on 31.03.2013 there were 2240 bridges and 51360 culverts on the PWD roads. Of them 85 Nos of bridges need reconstruction/renovation and 1591 culverts are not in good condition. More details are available in the Appendix 5.3a, Appendix 5.4a, Appendix 5.5a and Appendix 5.6a

 Based on the Economic Review reports 2015, total road length in Kerala during 2014-15 increased from 3, 31,372.261 Km in the previous year to 3, 72,472.216 Km (12%). Road density in the State is 853 Km/100 sq.km and it is far ahead of the national average of 387 km/100 sq.km. The outlay and expenditure in the Transport sector during 2013-14, 2014-15 and 2015-16 are given here.

      Roads maintained by different agencies of the State kerala during 2014-15 is given here 

The roads maintained by different Local Self Government Departments have account for 82.24 percent of the total in 2014-15. Out of the total road length of 306341.824 Km maintained by Panchayats, 133705.75 Km (43.65%) are black topped and 54421.124 Km (17.77%) are cement concrete. Out of the total roads maintained by PWD 31811.601 Km, Kottayam District has the major share with a length of 3449.301 Km (10.8%). Wayanad District has the lowest share at 1029.305 Km (3%). Details of district wise and category wise length of roads maintained by PWD (R&B) as on 31.03.2015 is given in here. As on 31.03.2015 there were 2253 bridges and 51400 culverts on the PWD roads. Of them, 91 bridges need reconstruction/renovation and 1265 culverts are not in good condition. More details are given in1, 2, 3 and 4 .

 

The Major development indicators of transport and communication sector in the State since 2010 are given below. 

 

 

Major Development Indicators of Transport and Communication Sector from 2010

 

Sl. No.

 

Item

 

Unit

 

2010

 

2011

 

2012

 

2013

 

2014

 

2015

 

2016

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1

Road  Length (PWD)

km

21578

23241.709

23241.709

31811.6

31811.6

31811.6

31812.096

2

Motor Vehicles

No

4880059

5397652

6072019

6870354

8547966

9421245

1,01,71,813

3

Buses owned by KSRTC

No

5115

5402

5741

5803

5860

5629

5686

4

Railway route length

km

1148

1198.9

1257

1257

1257

1257

1588

5

Flight operated (Domestic and International)

No

82313

73208

73208

82010

66122

92259

95790

6

Boat /Junkars operated by SWTD

No

81

81

92

95

97

95

98

7

Route Distance by SWTD

km

6730

6730

6890

6890

6890

6890

6890

8

Post Offices

No

5068

5070

5067

5068

5068

5068

5066

9

Telephone Exchanges

No

1240

1246

1245

1245

1269

1269

1321

10

Public Call Offices

No

118841

95193

95193

95193

28915

28915

28915

 

Source :Various Departments

 
 

 

      On the road front, traffic has been growing at a rate of 10 to 11 percent every year, resulting in excessive pressure on the roads of the State. Total road length in Kerala during 2015-16 is 205545.616 km. This includes classified and non classified roads as stipulated by Indian Road Congress. Road density in the State is 528.8 Km/100 sq.km and it is far ahead of the national average of 387 km/100 sq.km. The length of road per lakh population is 615.5 km. Almost 90 percent of the road network is single lane and below standard. The National Highways, considered to be the primary network, carries 40 percent of the total traffic, and the State Highways and MDRs, the secondary road network, carries another 40 percent of the road traffic. Thus less than 10 percent of the road network handles almost 80 percent of the total traffic.The Outlay end expenditure in the Transport sector during 2014-15 to 2016-17 (lakhs).

 

 

Sl No

 

Sub Sectors

 

Annual Plan 2014-15

 

Annual Plan 2015-16

 

Annual Plan 2016-17

 

Outlay

 

Exp.

 

Outlay

 

Expdr.

 

Outlay

 

Exp.*

1

Port Department

9869.00

5277.50 (53.48 per cent)

26928.00

20398.41 (75.75 per cent)

10721.00

1176.59 (10.97 per cent)

2

Roads and Bridges

83641.00

149420.40 (178.64 per cent)

95107.00

229039.04 (240.82 per cent)

120621.00

82731.63 (68.59 per cent)

3

Road Transport

10226.00

7578.57 (74.11 per cent)

7425.00

4847.68 (65.29 per cent)

7532.00

2061.42 (27.37 per cent)

4

Inland Waterways

14342.00

3930.93 (27.41 per cent)

15542.00

3336.52 (21.47 per cent)

15734.00

574.90 (3.65 per cent)

UptoOctober2016; 
Source: Accounts and Planspace, State Planning Board

 

Roads maintained by different agencies of the State are given here. 

   Agency wise distribution of State roads in Kerala during 2015-16 

 

Sl.No

 

Name of Department

 

Length (Km)

 

Per centage

1

Panchayats (LSGDs)

139380.410

67.81

2

PWD (R&B)

31812.096

15.48

3

Municipalities

18411.870

8.96

4

Corporations

6644.000

3.23

5

Forests

4575.770

2.23

6

Irrigation

2611.900

1.27

7

PWD (NH)

1781.570

0.87

8

Others (Railways, KSEB)

328.000

0.16

 

Total

205545.616

100

                                                                                        Source: Various Department

             The roads maintained by different Local Self Government Departments during 2015-16 is 139380.410 km (67.81 per cent), of which 63348.52 Km (45.45 per cent) are black topped and 16716.24 km (8.13 per cent) are cement concrete and of varying standards.

 

State Highways and Major District Roads:

 

               Of the 14 districts in the State Kottayam has the major share of PWD roads with the length of 3016.765 Km and Wayanad has the lowest share with 766.352 Km. Analyzing the PWD roads it reveals that only 6.655Km is cement concrete, 22174.503 Km is black topped and 447.238 Km water bound macadam. The black topped surface contributes 95.4 percentages. The number of bridges and culverts and number of unsafe bridges and culverts remained same. There are 2179 bridges (627 on SH and 1552 on MDR) and 51422 culverts (11512 on SH and 39910 on MDR) in PWD. Grama Panchayats and Block Panchayats maintain lion share of State Roads which comes to 104257 Kms which constitutes 68.75% of the total road length in the State.

                               All major arterial roads which provide mobility is with the PWD (R and B) and consist of 4341.65Km State Highways and 27469.95 Km Major District Roads. District wise details of road length are shown in Appendix 5.2.

            Of the 14 districts in the State, like 2011, in 2012 also Kottayam has the major share of PWD roads with the length of 3449.3 Km and Wayanad has the lowest share with 1029.3 Km. The district wise, surface wise and category wise length of road maintained by PWD (R&B) as on 31-3-2012 is given in Appendix 5.3. The surface wise and category wise length of PWD Roads during 2011-12 is given in Appendix 5.4.

            Analyzing the PWD roads it reveals that only 6.66Km is cement concrete, 30744.4Km is black topped and 447.3 Km water bound macadam. The black topped surface contributes nearly 97 % of the total roads. When compared to 2011 only the length of black topped road increased from 22174.5kms to 30744.4 kms (38.6% increase). The district wise details are given in Appendix 5.5.

            The number of bridges and culverts and number of unsafe bridges and culverts remained same during the year. There are 2179 bridges (627 on SH and 1552 on MDR) and 51422 culverts (11512 on SH and 39910 on MDR) under PWD. Of them 148 bridges and 1519 culverts are unsafe and need reconstruction /renovation and details is shown in Appendix 5.6.

 

                  Roads and Bridges wing of PWD is mandated to look after State Highways, and Major District Roads in the State. PWD roads constitute 15 per cent of the total road network in the State and carries nearly 80 per cent of the road traffic within the State. With road traffic growing at an average rate of 12-14 per cent every year, the pressure on PWD road network is on an increasing trend.

                    The total length of roads maintained by PWD (R&B) increased to 31812.096 km during 2015-16, of which 4342 km is State Highways and 27470 km is Major District roads. Out of the State highways of 4342 km, only 1640 km of roads is Standard Double Lane and 2,404 km of roads is Single Lane and the rest is Below Standard Single Lane. Out of the 27470 km of Major District Roads, only 1310 km are Standard Double Lane and 26160 km are Standard Single Lane. The total length of Double Lane PWD roads is only 2950 km which is only 9.27 per cent of the roads owned by PWD.

                    Out of the total roads of 31812.096 km maintained by PWD, Kottayam District has the major share with a length of 3456.214 km (10.86 per cent). Wayanad District has the lowest share with 1029.314 km (3.24 per cent). Details of district wise and category wise length of roads maintained by PWD (R&B) as on March 31, 2016 is given here.

                     As on March 31, 2016 there were 1806 bridges and 51400 culverts on the PWD roads. Of them, 61 bridges need reconstruction/renovation and 1557 culverts are not in good condition. More details are given in Table2,  Table3,  Table4. and  Table5.

 

Source:

* Economic Review 2010-2016

* Motor Vehicle Department 

Department of Economics and Statistics, Kerala