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| Last Updated:: 29/12/2014

Energy

Energy Development

  Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving the quality of life. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing needs of society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of the Government Development and promotion of non-conventional /alternative/ new and renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind and bio energy etc are getting sustained attention. Nuclear energy development being geared up to contribute significantly to the overall energy availability in the country.

 

Kerala’s Power Sector Projections

          In the past, the energy demand was presumed to be basis with load factor being used to convert the projected energy demand to peak MW demand. The projected energy demand was worked out by a combination of end use and time series analysis. This was the methodology used in the Electric Power Surveys (EPS) conducted by CEA in conjunction with the State Electricity Boards. One of the problems with the above approach has been the consistent over projection of peak demand. The annual growth of peak power demand has been assumed to be of the order of 7-8% and this has resulted in projections well beyond actual demands realised. Some of these anomalies have been corrected in the current EPS conducted and the projections for Kerala as continued in the 17th Draft EPS. The figures for Kerala in terms of demand projection in the Draft 17th EPS are given below.  

              

 

 

          As can be seen from 17th EPS Draft Report, there are a number of assumptions, which may result in the actual demand being more than what is being projected in the EPS or being less. KSEB’s own projections taking into account a higher growth rate and a slightly lower load factor projects the following demands for the 11th plan period. 

             

 

 

Power Sector in Kerala

          Power Sector in Kerala plays a vital role in all developmental activities in Kerala. Obviously power crisis is the Prime Obstacle to start new initiatives in the industrial field. The need for power is increasing and the production of power should also increase accordingly. Monsoon is essential to sustain the hydropower base in the state and the shortage in rainfall usually creates power crisis. Kerala received abundant monsoon during the current year and it increased the inflow in to KSEB reservoirs; the KSEB could manage the power supply situation with higher quantum of cheaper hydel power. Kerala is one among the very few states in the country where there was no load shedding and power cut during 2009-10. KSEB has been responsible for the generation, transmission and supply of electricity in the Sate of Kerala, with particular emphasis to provide electricity at affordable cost to the domestic as well as for agricultural purposes. The Board has been passing through a transitional phase of reforms in the electricity sector. The Electricity Act 2003 envisages separate organizations for Transmission and Distribution.

 

Energy Sources of Kerala

          Power System in Kerala encompasses hydel, thermal and wind sources. Hydel energy is the most reliable and dependable source in Kerala. Of the total installed capacity, 2746.19 MW, the lion’s share of 1933 MW of installed capacity comes from 24 hydel stations; 783.11 MW is contributed by the thermal projects including NTPC at Kayamkulam which is Kerala’s dedicated thermal station. Kanjikode wind farm, Palakkad has an installed capacity of 2.03MW. Wind Energy from IPP is 28.05 MW. Capacity addition during 2009-10 was only 51.44 MW (1.9 %) to 2746.19 MW as on 31-3-2010 from 2694.75 MW on 31-3-2009. 

         Monsoon is essential to sustain the hydropower base in the state and the shortage in rainfall usually creates power crisis. Hydel energy is the most reliable and dependable source in Kerala. Of the total installed capacity of 2881 MW during 2012-13, hydel contributed the major share of 2053 MW (71%); while 793MW was contributed by thermal projects including NTPC at Kayamkulam (Kerala’s dedicated thermal station) and Kanjikode wind farm, Palakkad has contributed 2MW, Wind Energy from IPP is 33 MW. Additional capacity generated during 2012-13 was only 8 MW (0.28%) that is 2881 MW in 2012-13 against 2873 MW in 2011-12. Various energy sources and its installed capacity during the last five years in Kerala  is shown below. The figure below highlights total installed capacity in Kerala from hydel, thermal and wind sources.

                         

 

Generation

Capacity Addition during 2010-11: Power System in Kerala consisted of hydel, thermal and wind sources. Hydenergy is the most reliable and dependable source in Kerala. Of the total installed capacity, 2857.59 MW during 2011, the lion’s share of 2040.8 MW of installed capacity comes from 24 hydel stations; 783.11 MW is from the thermal projects including NTPC at Kayamkulam which is Kerala’s dedicated thermal station. Kanjikode wind farm, Palakkad has an installed capacity of 2.03 MW. Wind Energy from IPP is 31.65 MW. Capacity addition made during 2010-11 was only111.40 (4%) that of 2746.19 MW on 2009-10. The above table depicts details of energy source and its installed capacity in Kerala for the last five years and total installed capacity in Kerala from 2008 to 2013 is given below:

                                             

           The history of Hydro Power development in Kerala begins with the commissioning of Pallivasal Hydro Electric Project in 1940. Next few decades reflected the progressive developments of various hydroelectric schemes implemented in the state. Sabarigiri in 1966 and Idukki in 1976 are milestones of power development in Kerala. The achievement in generation sector is not up to the level expected.  Total installed capacity of power in the state as on March 2013 is 2881 MW, of which the contribution of state sector is 2246.68 MW (78%), central sector 359.58 MW (12%) and private sector 274.78 MW (10%). 

 

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

          KSEB has entered into PPA with various Central Generating Stations of NTPC, NLC, NPCIL etc. envisaged for Southern Region. In addition to this, power was purchased from Rajiv Gandhi combined cycle power plant of NTPC at Kayamkulam, BSES Kerala Power Ltd, Kochi and Kasaragod Power Corporation Ltd., Mylatti. Recently, KSEB has also executed PPAs with Mega Power Projects such as SIMHADRI Stage II, NLC, Tutucorin-a joint venture project of NLC and TNEB, NLC Stage II expansion etc.  As a measure to encourage non-conventional sources of energy, KSEB has executed 38 PPAs for purchase of power from wind energy projects and from two Small Hydro Projects, namely, Meenvallom and Iruttikkanam.  Power Purchase Agreement with  Power Generation Stations

 

          To encourage non-conventional sources of energy, KSEB has executed PPAs for purchase of power from Wind Energy Projects, Agali (13.8 MW) & Ramakkalmedu (14.25MW) and from a small Hydro Projects Iruttukkanam (4.5 MW) during 2012-13.  Power is also being purchased from Ullunkal Small Hydro Projects (7MW) and a co-generation plant of MPS steel, Kanjikode (8MW) and Philips Carbon Black Ltd., Kochi (10MW). The capacity allocated from various stations for which the PPAs have been executed is shown below:

 

Growth of Power System in Kerala

            Growth is necessary in every sector in the power system particularly, generation, and transmission. As on 30.09.2010, installed capacity has been hiked by 2746.19 MW as against the 2685 MW in the same period of previous year. Likewise, per-capita consumption has also been increased by 544 KWh. The details of growth of power system in Kerala during various years are given here.

             Kerala generates power from four sources-hydro power, thermal power, wind power and solar power. Of these, hydel and thermal power generations account for the considerable majority whereas wind and solar power generations make only marginal additions. Growth of power system in Kerala during the last five years is shown below:

 

Sl.No

Particulars/Year

Position as on 11/2013

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

1

Installed Capacity -MW

2694.75

2746.19

2857.59

2872.79

2881.04

2

Maximum Demand(System)-MW

2765

2998

3119

3348

3268

3

Generation Per Annum-(KSEB Own)-MU

6494.50

7240.38

7412.59

8350.74

5333.399

4

Import Per Annum- MU

9628.98

10199.96

10512.29

11270.71

12771.64

5

Export Per Annum-MU

463.33

53.9

130.24

201.1

0

6

Energy Sales within state Per Annum-MU

12414.32

13971.09

14547.9

15980.53

16838.24

7

Percentage of energy losses to energy available for sales

20.45

19.41

17.99

17.45

16.83

8

Per Capita Consumption - kWh

490.00

474

519

567

595

9

220 kV Lines - CT Kms

2683.00

2701

2701

2713

2719.55

10

110 kV Lines - CT Kms

3921.00

3970

4004

4005

4044.30

11

66 kV Lines - CT Kms

2387.00

2387

2387

2387

2386.76

12

33 kV Lines - CT Kms

1148.00

1348

1421

1497

1561.63

13

11 kV Lines - CT Kms

41791.11

45541

49232

51392

52971

14

LT Lines - CT Kms

252458.00

260670

266856

270718

273274

15

Step Up Transformer capacity -MVA

2561.00

2564

2684

2689

2691

16

No of EHT Substations

 

 

 

 

 

A

400 kV

2 *

2*

2*

2*

2*

B

220 kV

15.00

17

17

18

18

C

110 kV

116.00

123

128

131

132

D

66 kV

85.00

82

80

80

81

E

33 kV

87.00

106

113

120

128

17

Step down transformer capacity - MVA

13519.70

15827.9

16222.1

16556.3

16965.3

18

Distribution Transformers

 

 

 

 

 

A

Numbers

46955.00

52724

58427

62726

65138

B

Capacity -MVA

5937.00

6708

7320

7674

7940

19

No of villages electrified

1384.00

1384

1467

1467

1467

20

No of consumers (Lakhs)

93.63

97.43

101.28

104.57637

108.0689

21

Connected Load-MW

15267.44

15866.55

16681.3

17518.42

18539.34

22

No of Street Lights

1086688.00

1148220

1196503

1218610

1257285

23

No of irrigation pumps

431745.00

437878

446460

455078

466289

24

Total revenue Per Annum (`Lakhs)

609899.00

641138

641138

797804.89

1165810

25

Revenue from Sale of Power Per Annum(`Lakhs)

509749.00

495060

495060

581781.92

722339.35

Transmission


           The Kerala power system consists of 13 hydel stations, 11 small hydel stations, 2 captive power plants, 2 thermal stations, 3 IPPs, and 1 wind mill. The grid is connected to the Southern Region Transmission system through two 400kV double circuit lines at Madakkathara and Trivandrum. There are 5 major inter-state transmission lines. The major substations include one 400 KV sub-station, and fourteen 220 KV substations and four 220kV substations under construction. The main grid comprises of the 220 KV system.
The net energy requirement for the year 2006-07 is estimated to be 14,687mu. Out of this about 7,457mu is expected from hydel sources, 7804 from central generating stations, and from the remaining sources. The present peak load demand is about 2700MW and is expected to increase up to 2,800 MW during April/May. The hydel potential is about 6130MU if the inflow is normal. We have a storage capacity of 4083MU. Kerala’s Transmission system consisting of substations and its connected lines.

                     During the year 2013-14, commissioning of 26 substations and construction of 314.6 KM of Transmission lines has been targeted. In the Transmission sector, many planned works could not be taken up due to land acquisition and right of way related issues. Kerala’s Transmission system consisting of substations and its connected lines are given below. The performance of the construction of substation with various capacities has not achieved the desired target. Out of the target of 5 numbers of 110 KV substations, only 1 substation is completed and in the case of 33 KV substations, 8 substations are completed against the target of 9 numbers. In the case of 220KV and 66 KV substations, nothing has been achieved.

Distribution

 

      KSEB is the sole distributor of the Electrical Energy for the state of Kerala except Thrissur Corporation and Munnar where the distribution is managed by licensees. In Thrissur, City Corporation and in Munnar M/s Tata Tea Ltd are the licensees. The system as on 29/02/2009           Distribution Sector is a profound area, which provides electricity to all consumers in Kerala. In the distribution segment, 3398.27 kms of 11 KV lines, 7838 kms of LT lines and 5790 nos of distribution transformers were added during the period under review. Kerala has achieved full electrification in all villages, which is above average of national level. KSEB has given great attention to strengthen the distribution backbone by new ventures of Restructured- Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R- APDRP) and Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhythikaran Yojana (RGGVY). The power  consumption comes to all time high. As on 31.3.2010, total number of consumers has increased to 9743476 nos against the 9363461 nos as on 31.3.2009. The distribution infrastructure is essential part of electrifying all domestic and non-domestic purpose. The target and achievement of the distribution infrastructure during 2009-10 is given here.

 

                 In the distribution segment, 53193 Circuit Kms of 11 KV lines, 274230 Kms of LT lines, 65686 nos. of distribution transformers and 1279379 street lights are existing as on 30th  Sept 2013. Service connections aggregating to 10963365 were effected during the years 2008-2013. During the financial year 2013-14, 190186 service connections were given up (against the target of 458130), 486.518kms of 11 KV line (against the target of 3430kms), 927 nos. of transformers (against the target of 4400 nos.) and 1415.5 kms of LT line (against the target of 6900 kms) were commissioned (up to 30.09.2013). The target and achievement of the distribution infrastructure during 2012-13 is given below:

 

Power Consumption


          The domestic category consumers showed a reasonable growth of 4.27 percentages to 7760645 in 2009-10 from 7443028 in 2008-09. But LT & HT Commercial category consumers registered an increase of 4.71 percentages over 2008-09. Growth of other agricultural pumping, Licensees (Bulk supply) also increased substantially over the year. The sale of energy has increased corresponding to the increase of total consumers. During 2009- 10, 14047.75 MU of energy was sold showing an increase of 1170.1 MU as  compared to the last year (12877.65 MU). As per the 17th Power Survey, it is estimated that by the end of 11th plan period (2012), the annual consumption and maximum demand will be 19230 MU and 3528 MW respectively. LT Consumers as on 2005 and 2009.
                

 

               KSEB has given great attention to strengthen the distribution backbone by introducing new ventures of Restructured- Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R-APDRP) and Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyuthikaran Yojana (RGGVY). The power consumption comes to all time high. As on 2012-13, total number of consumers has increased to 108.07 lakhs against 104.58 lakhs during 2011-12.

 

Simple steps to save energy

 

  • LIGHTING: 
     
  1. Do not forget to SWITCH OFF lights and fans when not required.
  2. Utilise the SUNLIGHT wherever and whenever available.
  3. A house should be designed in such a way that maximum sunlight and ventilation are obtained.
  4. Light coloured walls reflect more light and hence minimum lamps are enough.
  5. As far as possible, use task lighting which focuses light where it is needed.
  6. Make use of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) in place of incandescent lamps.
  7. 36 Watt slim tube lights give equivalent light output as that of 40 Watt tube lights.
  8. Use electronic ballasts / electronic choke against conventional electromagnetic ballasts tube lights for they consume less power.
  9. A so called zero watt bulb consumes 12 to 15 Watts / hour. CFL’s are available in 5,7,9,11 watts capacities and they give better light output.
  10. Many automatic devices can help in saving energy used in lighting. Consider employing infrared sensors, motion sensors, automatic timers, dimmers and solar cells wherever applicable, to switch on/off lighting circuits.
  11. Clean bulbs and tubelights periodically to avoid reduction in illumination.

 

  • FANS AND MOTORS:
     
  1. Use light weight / energy efficient fans.
  2. Use electronic regulators for fans for they consume less power and provides fine control.
  3. Avoid rewinding of motors.
  4. Clean fan blades periodically.
  5. Lubricate bearing of motor periodically.

  

  • GRINDERS:

 

  1. Use energy efficient motors for grinders.
  2. Always use nylon belt in grinders.
  3. Use grinder to its full capacity.
  4. Clean and lubricate grinder parts periodically.

 

  • WASHING MACHINE: 
  1. Use washing machine to its full capacity.
  2. Avoid using dryer in washing machines whenever possible

 

  • AIR-CONDITIONER:

     
  1. Use correct capacity air-conditioner to suit the requirement.
  2. Avoid frequent opening and closing of air-conditioned room.
  3. Clean the AC filters periodically.
  4. Air-conditioned room must be leak proof.
  5. Set the thermostat of room air conditioner at 25° (77° C F) to provide the most comfort at the least cost.
  6. Use energy efficient star labeled new air conditioner in place of older ones which need repair.

 

  • IRONING:
  1. Avoid ironing one or two clothes daily and adopt large scale ironing.

 

  • REFRIGERATOR:
  1. Keep refrigerator away from the wall to allow air to circulate around the refrigerator.
  2. Avoid frequent closing and opening of refrigerator door.
  3. Allow heated food stuff to cool down to normal temperature before refrigerating.
  4. Make sure foods are covered before they are kept in the refrigerator.
  5. Defrost regularly to keep freezers working their best.
  6. Thermostat control in refrigerators should be adjusted
  7. to optimum level depending upon climatic condition.
  8. Use energy efficient star labeled refrigerators.

 

  • WATER PUMPS
  1. Use energy efficient water pumps.
  2. Use correct size PVC piping system in water lines.
  3. Arrest leakage of water in taps / joints.
  4. Use capacitors for water pumps to improve power factor.
  5. Use level controllers for tripping of water pumps while pumping of water to overhead tanks etc.

 

  • WATER HEATERS:
  1. Use solar water heaters wherever possible.
  2. Avoid water leakage in taps / joints.
  3. Always insulate hot water pipes to reduce heat loss.

 

  • COMPUTERS:
  1. Turn off your home office equipment when not in use. A computer that runs 24 hours a day, for instance, uses - more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator.
  2. If your computer must be left on, turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system's energy.
  3. Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approximately 40%.
  4. Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. Start-ups and shutdowns do not use any extra energy, nor are they hard on your computer components. In fact, shutting computers down when you are finished using them actually reduces system wear - and saves energy.

 

  • AGRICULTURAL
  1. Substitute rusted G.I suction/delivery pipes by low friction rigid PVC pipes of correct diameter.
  2. Replace substandard foot valve by ISI marked foot valve.
  3. Replace substandard pumpsets by energy efficient pumpsets.
  4. Use correct size pumpsets and associated accessories.
  5. Provide and maintain capacitors in good condition.
  6. Avoid operation under low voltage conditions.
  7. Install, repair pumpset motors and wiring by competent electrical personnel.
  8. Ensure adequate water availability when pumpsets are operated.
  9. Avoid rewinding of motors.

             

Energy Conservation Tips

 

Do's

Don'ts

Do plug power equipment into wall receptacles with power switches in the OFF position.

Do not drape power cords over hot pipes, radiators or sharp objects.

Do unplug electrical equipment by grasping the plug and then pulling. Do not pull or jerk the cord to unplug the equipment.

Do not plug equipment into defective receptacles.

Do check the receptacle for missing or damaged parts.

Do not use non standard plugs, extension cords with junction box receptacle ends or other unsafe equipment.

Do check for defective cord clamps at locations where the power cord enters the equipment for the attachment plug.

Do not use consumer electrical equipment or appliances if not properly grounded.

Maintenance personnel should know the location of electrical circuit breaker panels that control equipment and lighting in their respective areas. Circuits and equipments disconnects must be identified.

Do not store materials temporarily or permanently within 3 feet of any electrical panel or electrical equipment.

Use a danger tag on any electrical equipment which causes shocks or has high leakage.

 

     

 Source: KSEB

           Economic Review 2005,2010,2011,2013
* Population based on 2001 Census
** includes 1 No. 400 KV Pallippuram S/s of PGCIL
*** Provisional