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| Last Updated:: 23/04/2013

Energy

 

Energy Development

          Energy is an essential input for economic development and improving the quality of life. Development of conventional forms of energy for meeting the growing needs of society at a reasonable cost is the responsibility of the Government Development and promotion of non-conventional /alternative/ new and renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind and bio energy etc are getting sustained attention. Nuclear energy development being geared up to contribute significantly to the overall energy availability in the country.

 

Kerala’s Power Sector Projections

          In the past, the energy demand was presumed to be basis with load factor being used to convert the projected energy demand to peak MW demand. The projected energy demand was worked out by a combination of end use and time series analysis. This was the methodology used in the Electric Power Surveys (EPS) conducted by CEA in conjunction with the State Electricity Boards. One of the problems with the above approach has been the consistent over projection of peak demand. The annual growth of peak power demand has been assumed to be of the order of 7-8% and this has resulted in projections well beyond actual demands realised. Some of these anomalies have been corrected in the current EPS conducted and the projections for Kerala as continued in the 17th Draft EPS. The figures for Kerala in terms of demand projection in the Draft 17th EPS are given below.  

              

 

 

          As can be seen from 17th EPS Draft Report, there are a number of assumptions, which may result in the actual demand being more than what is being projected in the EPS or being less. KSEB’s own projections taking into account a higher growth rate and a slightly lower load factor projects the following demands for the 11th plan period. 

             

 

 

Power Sector in Kerala

          Power Sector in Kerala plays a vital role in all developmental activities in Kerala. Obviously power crisis is the Prime Obstacle to start new initiatives in the industrial field. The need for power is increasing and the production of power should also increase accordingly. Monsoon is essential to sustain the hydropower base in the state and the shortage in rainfall usually creates power crisis. Kerala received abundant monsoon during the current year and it increased the inflow in to KSEB reservoirs; the KSEB could manage the power supply situation with higher quantum of cheaper hydel power. Kerala is one among the very few states in the country where there was no load shedding and power cut during 2009-10. KSEB has been responsible for the generation, transmission and supply of electricity in the Sate of Kerala, with particular emphasis to provide electricity at affordable cost to the domestic as well as for agricultural purposes. The Board has been passing through a transitional phase of reforms in the electricity sector. The Electricity Act 2003 envisages separate organizations for Transmission and Distribution.

 

Energy Sources of Kerala

          Power System in Kerala encompasses hydel, thermal and wind sources. Hydel energy is the most reliable and dependable source in Kerala. Of the total installed capacity, 2746.19 MW, the lion’s share of 1933 MW of installed capacity comes from 24 hydel stations; 783.11 MW is contributed by the thermal projects including NTPC at Kayamkulam which is Kerala’s dedicated thermal station. Kanjikode wind farm, Palakkad has an installed capacity of 2.03MW. Wind Energy from IPP is 28.05 MW. Capacity addition during 2009-10 was only 51.44 MW (1.9 %) to 2746.19 MW as on 31-3-2010 from 2694.75 MW on 31-3-2009. The table depicts detail of energy source and its installed capacity in Kerala as on 31-3-2010.  

                         

 

Total Installed Capacity in Kerala as on 31.03.2010 is shown below and total installed capacity in Kerala from hydel, thermal and wind sources represented by the pie diagram.

 

                                           

                                                              

 

 

Generation

Capacity Addition during 2010-11: Power System in Kerala consisted of hydel, thermal and wind sources. Hydenergy is the most reliable and dependable source in Kerala. Of the total installed capacity, 2857.59 MW during 2011, the lion’s share of 2040.8 MW of installed capacity comes from 24 hydel stations; 783.11 MW is from the thermal projects including NTPC at Kayamkulam which is Kerala’s dedicated thermal station. Kanjikode wind farm, Palakkad has an installed capacity of 2.03 MW. Wind Energy from IPP is 31.65 MW. Capacity addition made during 2010-11 was only111.40 (4%) that of 2746.19 MW on 2009-10. The below table depicts details of energy source and its installed capacity in Kerala as on 31-3-2011.

 

                                             Energy Source in Kerala as on 31-3-2011

 

Sl. No.

Source of Energy

Installed Capacity (MW)

1

Hydel - KSEB

1997.80

2

Thermal : KSEB

234.60

3

Wind : KSEB

2.03

4

NTPC

359.58

5

Thermal :IPP

188.93

6

Hydel : Captive

33.00

7

Hydel: IPP

10.00

8

Wind: IPP

31.65

Total

2857.59

 

 

      Total Sector wise installed capacity in Kerala as on 31.03.2011 as shown in the below table

 

Sector

MW

Percentage

State Sector

2234.43

78.19

Central Sector

359.58

12.58

Private Sector

263.58

9.22

Total

2857.59

100

 

Power Purchase Agreement (PPA)

          KSEB has entered into PPA with various Central Generating Stations of NTPC, NLC, NPCIL etc. envisaged for Southern Region. In addition to this, power was purchased from Rajiv Gandhi combined cycle power plant of NTPC at Kayamkulam, BSES Kerala Power Ltd, Kochi and Kasaragod Power Corporation Ltd., Mylatti. Recently, KSEB has also executed PPAs with Mega Power Projects such as SIMHADRI Stage II, NLC, Tutucorin-a joint venture project of NLC and TNEB, NLC Stage II expansion etc.  As a measure to encourage non-conventional sources of energy, KSEB has executed 38 PPAs for purchase of power from wind energy projects and from two Small Hydro Projects, namely, Meenvallom and Iruttikkanam. The capacity allocated from various stations for which the PPAs have been executed is given in the below.

 

                     Power Purchase Agreement with  Power Generation Stations

 

Sl. No.

Name of the Power Generation Stations

Allocation MW

I

CGS

 

A

Nuclear Power Stations

 

1

Kaiga I & II

38.00

2

Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS-440 MW)

18.00

B

Thermal Power Stations

 

1

NLC Stage II -ITPS II - Stage I

63.00

2

NLC Stage II -  II

90.00

3

NLC Stage I -Expansion

58.80

4

NLC Stage II Expansion

70.00

5

NLC New (1000MW)

32.38

6

Ramagundam I & II

245.00

6

Ramagundam III

61.00

7

Talcher II

247.00

8

RGCCP

180.00

9

Simhadri Stage II

80.90

10

Vallur Thermal Power Plant (VTTP)

49.90

11

Tutucorin

72.50

II

IPPs

 

A

Thermal

 

1

BSES Kerala Power Ltd

157.00

2

KPCL

20.436

3

MP Steel

10.00

B

Hydro

 

1

Meenvallam

3.00

2

Iruttukkanam

3.00

C

Wind

 

1

Agali

17.4

2

Ramakkalmedu

14.25

 

Growth of Power System in Kerala

            Growth is necessary in every sector in the power system particularly, generation, and transmission. As on 30.09.2010, installed capacity has been hiked by 2746.19 MW as against the 2685 MW in the same period of previous year. Likewise, per-capita consumption has also been increased by 544 KWh. The details of growth of power system in Kerala during various years are given below:

 

Sl. No

Particulars/Year

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010 (upto 30.09.2010)

1

Installed Capacity (MW)

2657.24

2657.24

2685.00

2746.19

2850

2

Annual Sales (MU)

12377.89

11331

12414.32

13971.09

 

3

Per-capita Consumption (KWh)

465

465

490

544

 

4

EHT lines (circuit KM)

10477

10217

10139

10406

10501

5

Sub stations (Nos)

272

272

305

330

335

6

H.T. lines (circuit KM)

37891

38048

41791

45540

46537

7

L.T lines (circuit KM)

223370

223370

252458

260670

263211

8

Distribution Transformers (Nos)

39872

39872

46955

52724

54437

9

Revenue from sale of power (Rs.crores)

4286.13

4009.7

4893.02

4747.17***

 


Transmission


           The Kerala power system consists of 13 hydel stations, 11 small hydel stations, 2 captive power plants, 2 thermal stations, 3 IPPs, and 1 wind mill. The grid is connected to the Southern Region Transmission system through two 400kV double circuit lines at Madakkathara and Trivandrum. There are 5 major inter-state transmission lines. The major substations include one 400 KV sub-station, and fourteen 220 KV substations and four 220kV substations under construction. The main grid comprises of the 220 KV system.
The net energy requirement for the year 2006-07 is estimated to be 14,687mu. Out of this about 7,457mu is expected from hydel sources, 7804 from central generating stations, and from the remaining sources. The present peak load demand is about 2700MW and is expected to increase up to 2,800 MW during April/May. The hydel potential is about 6130MU if the inflow is normal. We have a storage capacity of 4083MU.

Kerala’s Transmission system consisting of substations and its connected lines are given below:

 

                       

 

 Distribution

          KSE Board is the sole distributor of the Electrical Energy for the state of Kerala except Thrissur Corporation and Munnar where the distribution is managed by licensees. In Thrissur, City Corporation and in Munnar M/s Tata Tea Ltd are the licensees. The system as on 29/02/2009 are as follows:

 

Particulars

Existing

Consumers (in lakhs)

91.13

11 KV lines (Circuit KMS)

39,412

LT lines (Circuit KMS)

2,33,467

Distribution Transformers (Nos)

42,021

Street lights (in lakhs)

10.40

          Distribution Sector is a profound area, which provides electricity to all consumers in Kerala. In the distribution segment, 3398.27 kms of 11 KV lines, 7838 kms of LT lines and 5790 nos of distribution transformers were added during the period under review. Kerala has achieved full electrification in all villages, which is above average of national level. KSEB has given great attention to strengthen the distribution backbone by new ventures of Restructured- Accelerated Power Development and Reforms Programme (R- APDRP) and Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidhythikaran Yojana (RGGVY). The power  consumption comes to all time high. As on 31.3.2010, total number of consumers has increased to 9743476 nos against the 9363461 nos as on 31.3.2009. The distribution infrastructure is essential part of electrifying all domestic and non-domestic purpose. The target and achievement of the distribution infrastructure during 2009-10 is given below:                                                

 

 

Power Consumption


          The domestic category consumers showed a reasonable growth of 4.27 percentages to 7760645 in 2009-10 from 7443028 in 2008-09. But LT & HT Commercial category consumers registered an increase of 4.71 percentages over 2008-09. Growth of other agricultural pumping, Licensees (Bulk supply) also increased substantially over the year. The sale of energy has increased corresponding to the increase of total consumers. During 2009- 10, 14047.75 MU of energy was sold showing an increase of 1170.1 MU as  compared to the last year (12877.65 MU). As per the 17th Power Survey, it is estimated that by the end of 11th plan period (2012), the annual consumption and maximum demand will be 19230 MU and 3528 MW respectively.

 

                                                   

 

LT Consumers As on 29.02.2009

Category

Consumers

Domestic

71,92,703

Commercial

13,43,733

Industrial

1,30,219

Agriculture

4,46,734

Total

91,13,389


Simple steps to save energy

 

  • LIGHTING: 
     
  1. Do not forget to SWITCH OFF lights and fans when not required.
  2. Utilise the SUNLIGHT wherever and whenever available.
  3. A house should be designed in such a way that maximum sunlight and ventilation are obtained.
  4. Light coloured walls reflect more light and hence minimum lamps are enough.
  5. As far as possible, use task lighting which focuses light where it is needed.
  6. Make use of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL) in place of incandescent lamps.
  7. 36 Watt slim tube lights give equivalent light output as that of 40 Watt tube lights.
  8. Use electronic ballasts / electronic choke against conventional electromagnetic ballasts tube lights for they consume less power.
  9. A so called zero watt bulb consumes 12 to 15 Watts / hour. CFL’s are available in 5,7,9,11 watts capacities and they give better light output.
  10. Many automatic devices can help in saving energy used in lighting. Consider employing infrared sensors, motion sensors, automatic timers, dimmers and solar cells wherever applicable, to switch on/off lighting circuits.
  11. Clean bulbs and tubelights periodically to avoid reduction in illumination.

 

  • FANS AND MOTORS:
     
  1. Use light weight / energy efficient fans.
  2. Use electronic regulators for fans for they consume less power and provides fine control.
  3. Avoid rewinding of motors.
  4. Clean fan blades periodically.
  5. Lubricate bearing of motor periodically.

  

  • GRINDERS:

 

  1. Use energy efficient motors for grinders.
  2. Always use nylon belt in grinders.
  3. Use grinder to its full capacity.
  4. Clean and lubricate grinder parts periodically.

 

  • WASHING MACHINE: 
  1. Use washing machine to its full capacity.
  2. Avoid using dryer in washing machines whenever possible

 

  • AIR-CONDITIONER:

     
  1. Use correct capacity air-conditioner to suit the requirement.
  2. Avoid frequent opening and closing of air-conditioned room.
  3. Clean the AC filters periodically.
  4. Air-conditioned room must be leak proof.
  5. Set the thermostat of room air conditioner at 25° (77° C F) to provide the most comfort at the least cost.
  6. Use energy efficient star labeled new air conditioner in place of older ones which need repair.

 

  • IRONING:
  1. Avoid ironing one or two clothes daily and adopt large scale ironing.

 

  • REFRIGERATOR:
  1. Keep refrigerator away from the wall to allow air to circulate around the refrigerator.
  2. Avoid frequent closing and opening of refrigerator door.
  3. Allow heated food stuff to cool down to normal temperature before refrigerating.
  4. Make sure foods are covered before they are kept in the refrigerator.
  5. Defrost regularly to keep freezers working their best.
  6. Thermostat control in refrigerators should be adjusted
  7. to optimum level depending upon climatic condition.
  8. Use energy efficient star labeled refrigerators.

 

  • WATER PUMPS
  1. Use energy efficient water pumps.
  2. Use correct size PVC piping system in water lines.
  3. Arrest leakage of water in taps / joints.
  4. Use capacitors for water pumps to improve power factor.
  5. Use level controllers for tripping of water pumps while pumping of water to overhead tanks etc.

 

  • WATER HEATERS:
  1. Use solar water heaters wherever possible.
  2. Avoid water leakage in taps / joints.
  3. Always insulate hot water pipes to reduce heat loss.

 

  • COMPUTERS:
  1. Turn off your home office equipment when not in use. A computer that runs 24 hours a day, for instance, uses - more power than an energy-efficient refrigerator.
  2. If your computer must be left on, turn off the monitor; this device alone uses more than half the system's energy.
  3. Setting computers, monitors, and copiers to use sleep-mode when not in use helps cut energy costs by approximately 40%.
  4. Screen savers save computer screens, not energy. Start-ups and shutdowns do not use any extra energy, nor are they hard on your computer components. In fact, shutting computers down when you are finished using them actually reduces system wear - and saves energy.

 

  • AGRICULTURAL
  1. Substitute rusted G.I suction/delivery pipes by low friction rigid PVC pipes of correct diameter.
  2. Replace substandard foot valve by ISI marked foot valve.
  3. Replace substandard pumpsets by energy efficient pumpsets.
  4. Use correct size pumpsets and associated accessories.
  5. Provide and maintain capacitors in good condition.
  6. Avoid operation under low voltage conditions.
  7. Install, repair pumpset motors and wiring by competent electrical personnel.
  8. Ensure adequate water availability when pumpsets are operated.
  9. Avoid rewinding of motors.

             

Energy Conservation Tips

 

Do's

Don'ts

Do plug power equipment into wall receptacles with power switches in the OFF position.

Do not drape power cords over hot pipes, radiators or sharp objects.

Do unplug electrical equipment by grasping the plug and then pulling. Do not pull or jerk the cord to unplug the equipment.

Do not plug equipment into defective receptacles.

Do check the receptacle for missing or damaged parts.

Do not use non standard plugs, extension cords with junction box receptacle ends or other unsafe equipment.

Do check for defective cord clamps at locations where the power cord enters the equipment for the attachment plug.

Do not use consumer electrical equipment or appliances if not properly grounded.

Maintenance personnel should know the location of electrical circuit breaker panels that control equipment and lighting in their respective areas. Circuits and equipments disconnects must be identified.

Do not store materials temporarily or permanently within 3 feet of any electrical panel or electrical equipment.

Use a danger tag on any electrical equipment which causes shocks or has high leakage.

 


      

 Source: KSEB, Economic Review 2005,2010,2011
* Population based on 2001 Census
** includes 1 No. 400 KV Pallippuram S/s of PGCIL
*** Provisional