Envis Centre, Ministry of Environment & Forest, Govt. of India

Printed Date: Saturday, August 24, 2019

Carnivorous Plants

 Scientific Name: Utricularia caerulea

Description : Herbs; rhizoids up to 3 cm long, glandular, rarely branched; stolons up to 2 cm long, 0.1-0.3 mm thick, sparsely glandular, branches hyaliine. Foliar organs 4-8 x 1-1.3 mm, spathulate, rosulate, 1- 6 per node on stolons, 1-nerved, rounded to obtuse at apex. Traps 1-2 mm long, ovoid, on vegetative organs; stalk short; mouth terminal with a rim of glandular hairs; upper lip extended into a beak-shaped appendage, glandular, Racemes 3.5-40 cm log, 0.5-1 mm thick, simple or rarely branched, terete or flattened, glabrous, flowers clustered at apex or lax; scales 1.5-4 x 0.7-1 mm, medifixed, elliptic to rhomboid, 1-nerved; bracts 1.5-5 mm long, medifixed, elliptic to rhomboid, sparsely papillose without, 1-nerved; bracteoles 1-2 mm long, linear, basisolute, papillose; flowers up to 6 mm long; pedicels up to 2 x 0.4 mm, erect, terete, often recurved in fruit, papillose. Calyx-lobes subequal, hooded, papillose; upper lobe 2-2.5 x 1.5-2.5 mm, broadly ovate to orbicular, obtuse or rarely acute at apex. Corolla purple, pink, rose, blue, violet, white or cream-coloured, papillose; upper lip 2-4 x 1.5-1.8 mm, oblong to rarely deltoid, constricted at middle with two horn like projections on ventral surface, ciliate at lower margin, truncate, notched or emarginate at apex; lower lip 1.5-5 x 2-4.5 mm, semiorbicular to broadly ovate, yellow in throat, gibbous at base, rounded or shallowly 3-lobed at apex; spur 3-5 mm long, longer than lower lip, horizontally projected, often curved upwards, acute or notched at apex. Stamens c 1 mm long; filaments strap-shaped, curved, 1-nerved; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 1 mm long; ovary ovoid, attached to upper calyx-lobe at base; style short; stigma 2-lipped, lower semiorbicular and hairy, upper filiform and glabrous. Capsules 1.5-2 mm across, subglobose to obliquely ovoid, papillose, dehisce vertically by a ventral slit; placenta c 1 mm across, subglobose, pitted. Seeds 0.2-0.3 mm long, ovoid, ellipsoid to obovoid; hilum terminal; testa reticulate, cells elongate.

Habitat: On wet or marshy open sandy soil, mud and gravelly areas, under both seasonal and perennial conditions; from sea level upwards

Distribution: Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Meghalaya, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Goa & Dadra, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia exoleta R. Br.,

Description: Herbs; rhizoids usually absent, if present up to 5 cm long, c 1 mm thick at base, fusiform, tapering towards apex, branches botryform; stolons up to 20 cm long, c 0.2 mm thick; profusely branched. Foliar organs up to 1 cm long, simple or 1 -3 times dichotomously divided from base or at a short distance from base; ultimate leaf segments few, slightly compressed or terete, sparsely setulose along margins. Traps up to 1.5 mm across, obliquely ovoid, replacing foliar segments or rarely on rhizoids; stalk evenly thickened; mouth lateral, oblique; appendages usually 2- or rarely more. Racemes 4-15 cm long, erect, solitary or fasciculate, glabrous, 1-3-flowered; scales absent or rarely 1 -2, c 0.6 x 1 mm, basifixed, obovate to semiorbicular, truncate or slightly 3-lobed at apex; bracts 0.8-1 x 1-1.3 mm, transversely oblong, 5-nerved, truncate or denticulate at apex; flowers up to 7 mm long; pedicels 2-8 mm long, terete, erect or suberect. Calyx-lobes subequal, obovate to ovate, rounded or truncate at apex; upper lobe c 1.4 x 1.3 mm (c 3 x 3 mm in fruit); lower c 1.3 x 1.3 mm (c 2.5 x 2.5 mm in fruit). Corolla yellow; upper lip c 3 x 3 mm, orbicular to ovate, truncate or rounded at apex; lower lip c 2.7 x 2.5 mm, orbicular to broadly ovate, bigibbous at base, rounded, truncate or rarely 3-lobed at apex; spur as long as lower lip, conical, glandular within, obtuse or notched at apex. Stamens c 1 mm long; filaments flat, curved; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 1 mm long; ovary globose; style small; stigma 2-lipped, lower lip larger and semiorbicular, upper lip obsolete or denticulate. Capsules c 3 mm across, globose, bivalvate; placenta c 2 mm across, globose, glabrous, pitted. Seeds c 1 mm wide, lenticular, with a broad, irregular corky wing; hilum prominent; testa cells arranged radially.

Habitat: Submerged floating in shallow water and in swamps or rooted in mud; from sea level to 1700 m, often growing with U. aurea Lour.

Distribution: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa,tamilnadu, Uttar Pradesh,  West Bengal, Meghalaya, Andaman & Nicobar Islands

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia graminifollia Vahl,

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 2.5 cm long, c 0.3 mm thick, numerous, glandular, tapering towards apex, branches up to 2.5 mm long, papillose; stolons up to 10 cm long, c 0.5 mm thick, profusely branched, glandular. Foliar organs up to 10 x 1.5 cm, linear to strap-shaped, at base of scape and on stolons, 3-nerved, nerves branched further, rounded to obtuse or rarely retuse at apex. Traps 1-3 mm across, subglobose, slightly compressed, subdimorphic, numerous on vegetative organs; those on leaves sessile or subsessile, elsewhere long-stalked; mouth basal; appendages 2, subulate, simple, glandular. Racemes up to 30 cm long, 1-1.5 mm thick, erect, rarely branched, 1-9-flowered; scales 1-2 x 0.9-1.2 mm, basifixed, ovate to lanceate, rarely deltoid, 1- or 3-nerved, or nerves altogether absent, acute to acuminate at apex; bracts 1.5-2.5 x 1-1.5 mm, basifixed, ovate to lanceate, 1- or 3-nerved, acute to acuminate at apex; bracteoles 1-2.5 mm long, basifixed, subulate, 1-nerved; sterile bracts and bracteoles rarely seen among fertile ones; flowers 7-12 mm long; pedicels up to 11 mm long, erect, slightly winged. Calyx-lobes ovate to lanceate; upper lobes 3-6 x 2-3.5 mm, acuminate or rarely caudate at apex; lower 2.5-5.8 x 1.5-3 mm, 2-4-dentate at apex. Corolla blue to violet or pink; upper lip 4-6.5 x 2-3.5 mm, linear-oblong, longitudinally streaked, crested at centre, ciliate along lower margin, truncate, rounded or obtuse at apex; lower lip 4-7 x 3-7 mm, obovate, rarely orbicular, hairy in throat, bigibbous at base, obscurely 3-lobed, rounded or retuse at apex; spur 4.5-7 mm long, curved, conical, acute at apex. Stamens 1.5-2 mm long; filaments strap-shaped; anther thecae distinct. Pistil 1.5-2 mm long; ovary ovoid, compressed; style short; stigma 2-lipped, upper lip semiorbicular, lower truncate and hairy. Capsules 3-4 mm long, ovoid, thickened along dehisced margin; placenta 1.6-2.5 x 1-1.5 mm, oblongoid or ovoid, compressed. Seeds 0.2-0.4 mm across, subglobose to obovoid; hilum terminal, prominent; testa cells reticulate.

Habitat: In marshy places, near perennial water sources and water-falls in hilly areas; among grasses and on soil covered rocks, from 400 m upwards.

Distribution: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia roseopurpurea Stapf ex Gamble

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 2 cm long, filiform, simple or rarely branched, glandular; stolons up to 2 cm long, filiform, branches opposed to foliar organs. Foliar organs up to 15 x 3 mm, spatulate to obovate, 1-nerved, rounded at apex, rosulate at scape base and on stolons. Traps 1-2 mm across, globose to ovoid; mouth terminal; lip extended to a beak-shaped structure and rim around mouth, glandular hairy along edges of beak and rim. Racemes up to 25 cm long, erect, glabrous, 1-7-flowered; scales 1.5-4 mm long, medifixed, elliptic, acute or rarely bifid at base and apex; bracts 2-3 mm long, medifixed, elliptic, 1-nerved, acute at base and apex; bracteoles 1.5-2 mm long, medifixerf, limbs unequal; flowers 7-11 mm long; pedicels 1-2 mm long, erect, terete, papillose, often recurved in fruit. Calyx-lobes unequal, hooded, papillose; upper lobe 2.5-3 x 2-2.5 mm, broadly ovate, obtuse at apex; lower lobe 2-2.5 x 1.5-2 mm, obovate, obtuse or slightly retuse at apex. Corolla pink; upper lip c 5 mm long, linear, constricted at middle, hairy at lower margin, truncate or retuse at apex; lower lip c 7.5 x 7 mm, suborbicular, gibbous at base, crested, rounded or retuse at apex; spur c 3.5 mm long, shorter than lower lip, obtuse at apex. Stamens c 1.5 mm long; filaments strap-shaped, curved; anther thecae distinct. Pistil 1.5-2 mm long; ovary more or less rectangular in outline, compressed; style as broad as ovary, papillose; stigma 2-lipped, lower semiorbicular, upper subulate or obsolete. Capsules 2-3 mm across, globose to subglobose, papillose, attached to upper calyx-lobe, dehisce vertically on one side or 2-valved; placenta c 1.5 mm long, globose to ovoid, pitted. Seeds c 0.2 mm long, obovoid, papillose to tuberculate; hilum prominent, subterminal; testa reticulate, cells elongate.

Habitat: On dripping rocks from 850 to 2,500 m

Distribution:In India distributed in Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Kerala

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia scandens Benj

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 1.5 cm long, branches up to 1 mm, papillose; stolons up to 3 cm long, filiform, profusely branched. Foliar organs up to 15 x 1 mm, linear, 1-nerved, acute or rounded at apex. Traps c 1 mm across, more or less globose; stalk glandular, often columnar growth present near base; mouth basal; appendages 2, simple, subulate. Racemes up to 25 cm long, twining, rarely erect in smaller ones, glabrous, 1-9-flowered with sterile bracts present in between fertile ones; scales 0.7-1.5 mm long, basifixed, ovate to lanceate, acute to acuminate at apex, 1-nerved, rarely nerves absent; bracts 1-1.5 mm long, basifixed, broadly ovate, 1-nerved, acuminate to caudate at apex; bracteoles 0.3-1.4 mm long, linear to lanceolate, 1-nerved, rarely nerves absent; flowers 5-12 mm long; pedicels 1-5 mm long, erect, winged. Calyx-lobes 2-3 x 1.1 -3 mm (3-5 x 2-4 mm in fruit), ovate; upper lobe acute to acuminate at apex; lower lobe bi- or tridentate at apex. Corolla yellow; upper lip 2-3 mm long, obovate to oblong, constricted near middle, a crest running across at middle, obtuse to emarginate at apex; lower lip 3-6.5 x 2.5-3 mm, more or less obovate, hairy in throat, gibbous at base, rounded or shallowly emarginate at apex; spur 2-6 mm long, subulate or rarely conical, acute and curved at apex. Stamens c 1 mm long; filaments flat, twisted; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 1 mm long; ovary ovoid; stigma bilipped, lower lip oblong and hairy, upper lip semiorbicular and glabrous. Capsules c 2.5 x 1.5 mm, oblongoid to ovoid, dorsiventrally compressed, dehisced margin thickened; placenta c 1.5 x 1 mm, compressed, oblong, shallowly pitted. Seeds 0.2-0.35 mm long, ovoid to ellipsoid; hilum prominent; testa reticulate, cells elongated.

Habitat: Along wet and marshy places, twining among themselves or on other plants; from sea-level to 2,600 m.

Distribution: In India distributed in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, W. Bengal, Meghalaya, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia smithiana Wight

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 2 cm long, filiform, glandular, branches up to 6 mm long, papillose; stolons up to 3 cm long, filiform, branched. Foliar organs up to 15 x 2 mm, rounded at apex, 3-nerved, often nerves branched further. Traps c 1.5 mm across, globose; mouth basal; appendages 2, subulate. Racemes up to 45 cm long, erect, simple, grooved, glabrous, 1-7-flowered; scales c 2 x 1 mm, basifixed, lanceate, 3-nerved, acute to acuminate at apex; bracts 2.5-3.5 x 1.5-1.8 mm, basifixed, ovate, 3-5-nerved, acute to acuminate at apex; bracteoles 1-2 mm long, subulate, 1-nerved; flowers up to 15 mm long; pedicels 5-10 mm long, winged. Calyx-lobes unequal, glandular within, papillose without, denticulate along margins; upper lobe 4-7.5 x 4-5.5 mm, ovate, acuminate at apex; lower lobe 4-7 x 2.7-4 mm, lanceate, bidentate to 4-denticulate at apex. Corolla blue to violet, papillose; upper lip 4-6.5 x 4-5 mm, obovate to oblong, crested across on ventral side, ciliate along lower margin, rounded at apex; lower lip 10-16 x 11-19 mm, semiorbicular, hairy in throat, gibbous at base, rounded at apex; spur up to 7 mm long, conical, papillose within, acute at apex. Stamens c 2 mm long; filaments strap-shaped; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 2.5 mm long; ovary ovoid; stigma bilipped, lips equal in size. Capsules 3.5-5 x 2.5-3 mm, ovoid, wall uniformly membranous; placenta 2-3 x 1,2-2 mm, ovoid. Seeds 0.2-0.35 mm long, subglobose to oblongoid; hilum terminal, prominent; testa reticulate, scrobiculate, cells elongate.

Habitat: Along marshy places at high altitudes above 1000 m.

Distribution: Endemic to southern parts of W. Ghats: Tamil Nadu, South Karnataka and Kerala

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia stellaris L. f.

Description: Herbs; rhizoids absent; stolons up to 60 cm long or more, glabrous, branched. Foliar organs up to 5 cm long; primary segments 3-5, semiverticillate; secondary segments 2 per point and repeatedly divided; ultimate segments capillary, terete, setulose; stipules if present up to 3 mm across, auriculate, segments setulose, cordate at base. Traps 1-2 mm across, obliquely ovoid, slightly compressed; mouth lateral, oblique; appendages usually 2, rarely more or altogether absent, simple or branched. Racemes up to 20 cm long, held above water level.by floats, up to 12-flowered, flowers congested at anthesis; floats 2.5-25 x 2-5 mm, globose, ellipsoid to cylindrical, 3-10, verticillate, usually at middle of peduncle, rarely near base, reduced foliar-like segments attached at apex; bracts 1.5-3 mm long, basifixed, elliptic to ovate-deltoid, usually hyaline, 3-7-nerved, obtuse to truncate at apex. Flowers up to 8 mm long; pedicels 2-7 mm long, terete, distally thickened, erect at anthesis and recurved or reflexed in fruit. Calyx-lobes subequal, accrescent, fleshy, reflexed or rarely covering the capsule in fruit; upper lobe 3-3.5 x 2.5-3.3 mm (5-7 x 4-5 mm in fruit), ovate, acute to obtuse at apex; lower lobe 2-2.5 x 3-3.5 mm (up to 4 x 5 mm in fruit), suborbicular to transversely elliptic, rounded, truncate or retuse at apex. Corolla yellow, glandular hairy; upper lip c 4 x 3 mm, broadly ovate, emarginate, rounded or rarely truncate at apex; lower lip c 4 x 4 mm, more or less orbicular, hairy in throat, bigibbous at base, emarginate or crenate at apex; spur short, cylindrical, slightly curved, obtuse at apex. Stamens c 1.5 mm long; filaments dilated towards anther; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 1.5 mm long; ovary globose; style short, cylindrical; stigma 2-lipped, lower lip semiorbicular and hairy, upper lip 3-denticulate. Capsules (2-) 4-5 mm across, globose, circumscissile; placenta c 2 mm across, globose. Seeds 0.2-0.4 x 0.5-1 mm, prismatic, 4-7 angled, 2-4-times as wide as high, winged; hilum represented by a round scar, prominent; testa reticulate, cells elongate at sides and bottom of seed, and isodiametric at top.

Habitat: Submerged floating in still or slow running water in ponds, tanks, lakes and rice fields; from sealevel upwards.

Distribution : Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal. In India distributed throughout except northern most and north-eastern states.

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia striatula Smith

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 2.5 cm long, simple, few or altogether absent; stolons up to 9 cm long, simple, rarely branched, glandular. Foliar organs with pseudopetiole up to 15 mm long, orbicular to obovate, rosulate at scape base, scattered on stolons, expanded portion up to 5 mm across, veins dichotomously branched. Traps up to 1.5 mm across, globose to obliquely ovoid; mouth lateral; appendages glandular hairy, on expanded, divergent upper lip. Racemes up to 18 mm loong, erect, often zigzag, glabrous, up to 10-flowered; scales if present 1-1.5 mm long, medifixed; bracts 0.6-2 mm long, medifixed, constricted at middle, limbs unequal; bracteoles 0.7-1.5 mm long, medifixed, limbs unequal; flowers up to 10 mm long; pedicels 1.5-7 mm long, filiform, spreading in anthesis, spreading or recurved in fruit, papillose atleast in fruiting. Calyx-lobes highly unequal, papillose; upper lobe 1.2-4 x 2-4 mm, obovate to obcordate, emarginate, truncate or obtuse at apex; lower lobe 0.6-2 x 0.4-2 mm, oblong to ovate, truncate, notched or rounded at apex. Corolla pink, lilac, violet, white to variously tinged, often yellow-blotched near base; upper lip 0.6-2 mm across, semiorbicular to deltoid, bidentate, truncate or irregular at apex; lower lip 3-7 x 3-10 mm, 3- or 5-lobed, throat hairy, base raised or flat, rounded or truncate at apices of lobes; spur 1-6 mm long, cylindrical or conical, rarely reduced to a mound, obtuse, acute or retuse at apex. Stamens up to 1.2 mm long; filaments strap-shaped, curved; anther thecae subdistinct. Pistil up to 1.2 mm long; ovary obliquely ovoid, attached to base of upper calyx-lobe; style distinct; stigma 2-lipped, lower lip oblong to semiorbicular, upper lip obsolete. Capsules 1.5-3.5 mm long, obliquely ovoid, attached to upper calyx-lobe, keeled on ventral side, dehisce by a longitudinal ventral slit; placenta c 1 x 0.6 mm, flask-shaped. Seeds 0.3-0.4 mm long, clavate, cylindrical or oblongoid, attached radially to placentum, glochidiate

Habitat: Epiphytic or terrestrial; found on wet moss covered tree trunks, dripping rocks in shade, vertical face of wet rocks and less commonly on moss covered stone walls; from 150 m upwards, mostly in higher altitudes.

Distribution: Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands . In India distributed almost throughout the country.

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia uliginosa Vahl

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 2 cm long, capillary, tapering towards apex, branches 1.5 mm long, papillose; stolons up to 5 cm long, profusely branched. Foliar organs up to 8 x 1 cm, linear, rounded at apex, 3-nerved, nerves often branched further. Traps up to 1.5 mm across, subglobose, glandular; mouth basal; appendages 2, subulate, globose, glandular; mouth basal; appendages 2, subulate, simple, glandular. Racemes up to 30 cm long, erect, terete, often grooved and winged, 1-6-flowered; scales 1-2 mm long, basifixed, ovate to deltoid, 3-nerved, acute at apex; bracts 1 -2.5 mm long, basifixed, ovate to deltoid, 1-3-nerved, acute at apex; bracteolcs 0.6-1.5 mm long, subulate; flowers up to 8 mm long; pedicels 1.5-7 mm long, winged, erect or spreading in fruit. Calyx-lobes more or less equal, ovate, margin denticulate; upper lobe 2.5-4 x 2.5-3 mm (up to 7.5 x 6 mm in fruit), acute to acuminate at apex; lower lobe 2.4-3.5 x 2-2.5 mm (up to 7.3 x 6 mm in fruit), 2-3-dcnticulate at apex. Corolla blue to violet or rarely pink; upper lip 3-4 mm long, oblong, slightly constricted at middle, crested on ventral side, hairy along lower margins, emarginate or truncate at apex; lower lip 4-6 x 2.5-4.5 mm, obovatc to oblong, hairy in throat, gibbous, rounded or slightly 3-lobed at apex; spur 3-5 mm long; filaments linear; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 1.5 mm long; ovary ovoid, slightly compressed; stigma bilipped, lower lip oblong and hairy, upper lip reduced to a small hemispherical structure. Capsules 3-4 x 2-3 mm, ovoid, wall uniformly membranous; placenta 1.5-3 x 1.2-2.2 mm, ovoid. Seeds c 0.4 mm across, subglobose to oblongoid; hilum terminal; testa reticulate, cells isodiametric to slightly oblong.

Habitat: Along marshy places and near perennial water sources from sea-level to 2,500 m.

Distribution: In India distributed in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu along Western Ghats and West Bengal.

 

Scientific Name: Utricularia wightiana Taylor

Description: Herbs; rhizoids up to 1.5 cm long, branches c 1 mm long, papillose; stolons profusely branched. Traps c 1.5 mm across, subglobose; mouth basal; appendages 2, subulate. Foliar organs up to 25 x 4 mm, linear, 3-nerved, rounded at apex. Traps c 1.5 mm across, subglobose; mouth basal; appendages 2, subulate, simple. Racemes up to 25 cm long, erect, c 1 mm thick, terete, 1-3-flowered; scales 1-2 x 1-1.6 mm, basifixed, ovate, 3-nerved, numerous, free and not adpressed to peduncle, glandular on inner surface, acute at apex; bracts 2-2.5 x 1.5-2 mm, basifixed, ovate to lanccate, acute at apex; bracteoles 1-2 mm long, linear, 1-nerved, glandular on inner surface; flowers 8-15 mm long; pedicels 4-7 mm long, slightly winged. Calyx-lobes subequal, ovate; upper lobe 3.5-5 x 2.5-3.5 mm, acuminate at apex; lower 2.5-5 x 2.5-3 mm, bidentate at apex. Corolla blue; upper lip 3.5-5 mm long, linear, rounded at apex; lower lip 4-8 mm across, quadrate, gibbous at base, rounded or slightly emarginate at apex; spur 5-7 mm long, conical, curved and acute at apex. Stamens c 1.2 mm long; filaments strap-shaped, curved; anther thecae distinct. Pistil c 1.3 mm long; ovary ovoid; style flat; stigma 2-lipped. Capsules c 4 x 2.5 mm, ovoid, wall uniformly membranous; placenta oblongoid. Seeds c 0.4 mm across, scrobiculate; hilum terminal; testa cells more or less isodiametric, cell walls separated by a space from testa except at corners.

Habitat: At high altitudes from 1,600 m to 2,200 m in marshy areas of grasslands.

Distribution: Restricted to Nilgiri and Kodaikanal hills of Tamil Nadu and Attappadi hills of Kerala.

 

Reference:ENVIS Centre on Floral Diversity, http://bsienvis.nic.in/